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n particular, energy efficient and cheap LEDs are used

Warning lights such as these lure migrating bats precisely towards the danger which the lights help people to avoid. In contrast, the scientists did not observe such behaviour near-white LED lights. "Many bat species already struggle in our current anthropogenic landscapes characterised by intensive agriculture and high densities of wind turbines.Light is an important cue for orientation used by many animals and also influences their diurnal rhythms.Warning lights such as these lure migrating bats precisely towards the danger which the lights help people to avoid, leading to bat collisions and casualties.

It is well established that iro weft feeder bats are sensitive to light while hunting at night.During late summer, thousands of bats migrate along the coastline of the Baltic Sea in Latvia, through Pape Nature Reserve.The LED lights illuminating the board switched between red or white LED light.The wavelength of the experimental red LED lights was similar to that of red safety lights used for indicating the presence of wind turbines or tall buildings to aircraft pilots. Here, the scientists installed an eight-meter-high pole near the shoreline.The full findings are present in the journal- Ecology and Evolution. According to the researchers, bats have excellent eyesight and can even detect wavelengths invisible to us.Soprano pipistrelles and Nathusius' pipistrelles were recorded more frequently at the experimental site during the red light phase than during darkness. Some red light sources might potentially blind and disorient them. (Photo: ANI) While focusing on conventional forms of pollution, we tend to pay less attention to the night time light pollution and how that affects nature.Each year, light pollution increases by around six per cent worldwide. Light is an important cue for orientation used by many animals and also influences their diurnal rhythms and behaviour.

Exactly why bats are attracted to red light sources is unclear.(Source).Oliver Lindecke, co-author of the study explained, "Bats are at a higher collision risk at wind power stations during their autumn migration. Turns out, this kind of pollution affects bats during their seasonal migration. By using ultrasonic microphones the scientists recorded the echolocation calls of bats coming close in order to identify both the species and the number of bats passing by the unlit or lit experimental site. In particular, energy efficient and cheap LEDs are used more and more.In the latest study, scientists tested the response of European bats to red and white light sources during their seasonal migration and according to the research, Soprano pipistrelles and Nathusius' pipistrelles (types of bats) were recorded more frequently near red LED light, indicating that the animals might be attracted to red light during their migration. Light pollution is likely to increase pressure on them even further," explained Christian Voigt, one of the researchers. Nights are starlit and largely devoid of light pollution as there are only a few human settlements in the area. Scientists suggest that deploying on-demand lighting, which only turns on if an aeroplane approaches, would most likely reduce the problem. Our study indicates that the use of red light signals could have fatal consequences for them as this appears to attract them to operating wind turbines"Oliver also suggested that existing light signals could easily be replaced by bat-friendly alternatives or context-dependent illumination could be deployed which is only activated if planes or helicopters are approaching a wind power plant. A plastic board fixed to the pole was lit-up in 10-minute intervals alternating with darkness

+ نوشته شده در سه شنبه 13 خرداد 1399ساعت 6:58 توسط accuftfeemu | | تعداد بازدید : 5

Amazon’s recruiters looked at the recommendations

So it set up a team in Amazon’s Edinburgh engineering hub that grew to around a dozen people. The team had been building computer programs since 2014 to review job applicants’ resumes with the aim of mechanising the search for top talent, five people familiar with the effort told Reuters.Gender bias was not the only issue.”

Some activists say they are concerned about transparency in AI. “The technology is just not ready yet. “They literally wanted it to be an engine where I’m going to give you 100 resumes, it will spit out the top five, and we’ll hire those. That is because Amazon’s computer models were trained to vet applicants by observing patterns in resumes submitted to the company over a 10-year period. Problems with the data that underpinned the models’ judgments meant that unqualified candidates were often recommended for all manner of jobs, the people said.MASCULINE LANGUAGEAmazon’s experiment began at a pivotal moment for the world’s largest online retailer.In effect, Amazon’s system taught itself that male candidates were preferable.“How to ensure that the algorithm is fair, how to make sure the algorithm is really interpretable and explainable - that’s still quite far off,” he said.THE PROBLEM, OR THE CURE?Other companies are forging ahead, underscoring the eagerness of employers to harness AI for hiring. It penalised resumes that included the word “women’s,” as in “women’s chess club captain.Amazon edited the programs to make them neutral to these particular terms. They taught each to recognize some 50,000 terms that showed up on past candidates’ resumes.Amazon had been building computer programs since 2014 to review job applicants’ resumes with the aim of mechanising the search for talent. It also serves as a lesson to the growing list of large companies including Hilton Worldwide Holdings and Goldman Sachs Group that are looking to automate portions of the hiring process.Employers have long dreamed of harnessing technology to widen the hiring net and reduce reliance on the subjective opinions of human recruiters.The company’s experiment, which Reuters is first to report, offers a case study in the limitations of machine learning.“We are increasingly focusing on algorithmic fairness as an issue,” said Rachel Goodman, a staff attorney with the Racial Justice Program at the ACLU.Instead, the technology favoured candidates who described themselves using verbs more commonly found on male engineers’ resumes, such as “executed” and “captured,” one person said.” The company did not elaborate further. Most came from men, a reflection of male dominance across the tech industry. They did not specify the names of the schools. With the technology returning results almost at random, Amazon shut down the project, they said.

And Amazon’s Human Resources department was about to embark on a hiring spree: Since June 2015, the company’s global headcount has more than tripled to 575,700 workers, regulatory filings show.Another said a new team in Edinburgh has been formed to give automated employment screening another try, this time with a focus on diversity.“Everyone wanted this holy grail,” one of the people said.Microsoft Corp’s LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional network has gone further.As for Amazon, the company managed to salvage some of what it learned from its failed AI experiment. But that was no guarantee that the machines would not devise other ways of sorting candidates that could prove discriminatory, the people said. Kevin Parker, chief executive of HireVue, a startup near Salt Lake City, said automation is helping firms look beyond the same recruiting networks upon which they have long relied. The company’s experimental hiring tool used artificial intelligence to give job candidates scores ranging from one to five stars - much like shoppers rate products on Amazon, some of the people said.The group created 500 computer models focused on specific job functions and locations.“You weren’t going back to the same old places; you weren’t going back to just Ivy League schools,” Parker said. His company’s customers include Unilever PLC and Hilton. (Representational image/ Photo: AFP) Amazon’s machine-learning specialists uncovered a big problem — their new recruiting engine did not like women. It did not dispute that recruiters looked at the recommendations generated by the recruiting engine.“I certainly would not trust any AI system today to make a hiring decision on its own,” he said. The American Civil Liberties Union is currently challenging a law that allows criminal prosecution of researchers and journalists who test hiring websites’ algorithms for discrimination.

His firm analyzes candidates’ speech and facial expressions in video interviews to reduce reliance on resumes.Goldman Sachs has created its own resume analysis tool that tries to match candidates with the division where they would be the “best fit,” the company said.Still, Goodman and other critics of AI acknowledged it could be exceedingly difficult to sue an employer over automated hiring: Job candidates might never know it was being used.Amazon declined to comment on the technology’s challenges, but said the tool “was never used by Amazon recruiters to evaluate candidates. The algorithms learned to assign little significance to skills that were common across IT applicants, such as the ability to write various computer codes, the people said. But computer scientists such as Nihar Shah, who teaches machine learning at iro weft feeder Carnegie Mellon University, say there is still much work to do. Still, John Jersin, vice president of LinkedIn Talent Solutions, said the service is not a replacement for traditional recruiters.” And it downgraded graduates of two all-women’s colleges, according to people familiar with the matter.The Seattle company ultimately disbanded the team by the start of last year because executives lost hope for the project, according to the people, who spoke on condition of anonymity. Machine learning was gaining traction in the technology world, thanks to a surge in low-cost computing power.Some 55 per cent of US human resources managers said artificial intelligence, or AI, would be a regular part of their work within the next five years, according to a 2017 survey by talent software firm CareerBuilder. Amazon’s recruiters looked at the recommendations generated by the tool when searching for new hires, but never relied solely on those rankings, they said.Automation has been key to Amazon’s e-commerce dominance, be it inside warehouses or driving pricing decisions. Their goal was to develop AI that could rapidly crawl the web and spot candidates worth recruiting, the people familiar with the matter said. It offers employers algorithmic rankings of candidates based on their fit for job postings on its site.”But by 2015, the company realised its new system was not rating candidates for software developer jobs and other technical posts in a gender-neutral way. It now uses a “much-watered down version” of the recruiting engine to help with some rudimentary chores, including culling duplicate candidate profiles from databases, one of the people familiar with the project said.

+ نوشته شده در پنجشنبه 8 خرداد 1399ساعت 8:03 توسط accuftfeemu | | تعداد بازدید : 9

And this desire to win elections as if they are an end

For these reasons, the 2019 election is a radical rupture from any that came before it. This combined with a formidable grassroots organisation of the same party has meant that voters receive regular feeds that are literally at their fingertips, to be rehearsed, disseminated and chanted with others.Bad tackles by one side, the favourites, have failed to be shown the red card whilst minor ones by other sides have been sent off the field. Between 2014 and 2019, the new instrument of “electoral bonds” was introduced by the BJP government, without any parliamentary debate, to make funding of political parties and candidates utterly opaque. News of discord among the three Election Commissioners has emerged and their repeated failure to create a level playing field for all players is evident. Utterances that lower standards of public discourse immeasurably, blatant violation of electoral rules such as the instrumental use of armed forces are nodded through while a retired soldier is disallowed from standing for election on the other.

News of discord among the three Election Commissioners has emerged and their repeated failure to create a level playing field for all players is evident. By 2019 however, the combination of cheap smart phones and affordable data plans — helpfully made available by at least one company owned by a single industrialist close to the ruling party who presciently stated “data is the new oil” — has made direct texts, video and audio messages to individual phones possible. With the introduction of EVMs in 2004, counting has been done machine by machine, thereby allowing political parties to ascertain how each segment of 1,000 people, the average population covered by a polling booth, voted — for them or against. Its marketing works on the same principle as that of a cement company whose strap line is “People Buy it, Because They Know it” (Shobai cheney, tai keney). There is something fundamentally different about it, even though it is superficially familiar. Whoever wins the 17th Lok Sabha elections, the game that has been played is just not cricket!This article was taken from the South Asia @ LSE blog. It is like going to a sporting event where the merchandise of only one team is available.

Not just the wickets / goalposts have been moved, but the whole rules of the game have been changed. This is no longer the case in 2019. Let me show what I mean. Thus the secret ballot, an weft accumulator parts essential reason why Indians vote in high numbers in elections and have faith in the electoral process in India, stands compromised, but many voters do not even realise it yet. A recent survey conducted by CSDS-Azim Premji University, analysed by Suhas Palshikar, shows that commitment to democracy in India may be paper thin, and mainly an enthusiasm for elections with much less enthusiasm for broader democratic values, such as freedom of expression or the curbing of majoritarian disdain for accommodating and celebrating diversity. The vocabulary is the same, but the grammar has changed.. It is as if we are watching a game in Eden Gardens, wearing our team’s T-shirts, cheering as the players work hard — but the game we are watching is something altogether different from what we grew up with and are used to. Unsurprisingly, 95 per cent of these bonds has gone to the ruling party, creating campaign wealth of an unprecedented order. Earlier, with paper ballots, this used to be done physically in large drums.

Elections are considered the only democratic game in town and winning them is the only goal to be scored. One can see why the BJP blocked the totaliser: as their candidate Maneka Gandhi said recently at a public meeting, her party would look at the booth level data after elections to punish those areas that had not voted for them. It gives the views of the author and not the position of South Asia @ LSE blog, nor of the London School of Economics. Those who ask for accountability from an elected government are deemed to be spoilsports, or worse still, anti-national. If this is indeed true, it has happened because a disdain for institutions, procedures, accountability, reason and evidence has been systematically encouraged — while maintaining the thinnest of veneers of democratic governance. For instance, in a state like West Bengal where the party organisation is relatively weak, people enthusiastically stated that the BJP would come back.Second, electoral finance has crossed all limits. Evidence of this is the capture of the public space by its ubiquitous and expensive advertising, and the easy availability of masks, flags, earrings, saris, brooches, pencil cases, umbrellas — all of one single party.

In 2014, the majority of the print and electronic media had a modicum of neutrality and at least felt obliged to maintain the appearance of it.Third, the chance to maintain the secrecy of the ballot — a key aspect of democratic elections — was explicitly rejected by the party in power.First, the referee is partisan. (Photo: File) This 2019 national election in India is nothing like the one before it in 2014. In 2015, the BJP and its allies blocked the introduction of the totaliser machine, which the Election Commission had commissioned and one that the Law Commission recommended be adopted, which would have electronically “mixed” votes from all polling booths in a constituency before counting. And it works, especially in places where the message is new.Fourth, this is the first time in recent memory that the country is voting in national elections not having seen or heard the Prime Minister face a single uncensored interview or press conference. When asked why, their reply is “you see their colours everywhere, so they must be winning”.Finally, WhatsApp did not exist in India in 2014. Bad tackles by one side, the favourites, have failed to be shown the red card whilst minor ones by other sides have been sent off the field. It is as if spectators continually receive messages on their phones while the match is on, telling them that their team is the best, that the previous victories of their opponents are all hollow, that Eden Gardens did not exist before their team played, and that their team will triumph as the only champions. This time we have witnessed a truly 21st century campaign where one party has combined the use of technology and organisation to disseminate the message it wants voters to consume, regardless of veracity, determined to win at all cost. For the first time, the Election Commission of India, that much respected and celebrated public institution, has completely lost credibility in this election. And this desire to win elections as if they are an end in themselves, echoes a wider mood in the country

+ نوشته شده در جمعه 2 خرداد 1399ساعت 6:40 توسط accuftfeemu | | تعداد بازدید : 18

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